Prehistoric Man, A Complex Enigma
Man, an Enigma. An analysis of
understanding of earth’s early prehistoric development is still limited although
perhaps widely accepted. The Six Geological Eras are like chapters in a large
volume with many pages, paragraphs, and phrases missing, but the outline in the
rock record exhibits unmistakably a continuity of progress, purpose and plan
which staggers the mind. It is obvious that to understand Creation one must
understand the Creator’s intent and method. How and where does prehistoric man
fit into the overall picture? He was obviously a failure.
Given a universe of matter, composed of over 100 elements in
which even the tiniest atomic components reflect design, predictable behavior
and chemical cooperation; and living matter composed of protein molecules, each
containing up to 10,000 atoms or more, maintaining definite characteristics
according to number and composition; and living forms comprised of cells each
made up of many thousand protein molecules so closely aligned that the addition
or subtraction or one or two genes changes their performance. Add to this cell
organization and differentiation in vertebrates which are miracles of exactness;
and balance amongst plant and animal species carefully chosen to fulfill an
ecological function in each community. Sum these up and it is unthinkable that
prehistoric men were created as carnivores, predators, parasites, or producers
when there were so many other creatures with instinct patterns and better
equipment for the purpose. It thus appears that prehistoric man had a purpose
all his own, not necessarily in the natural economy nor in the spiritual
economy, but probably somewhere in between, which he never filled.
Based on ecological, biological (not evolutionary),
environmental and functional considerations prehistoric man should have appeared
in the latter Cenozoic along with certain plant and animal species, (perhaps
2,000,000 B.C.), most likely to prepare the way or become a servile animal for a
more advanced species in the homo (man) family group. Apparently he appeared
much later and never completed his mission, at least we have little evidence
that he did. There may be a good reason why the man family did not develop as
expected or planned. This might be implied in the indictment and demotion of
Lucifer, the original supervisor of earth, which is partially recorded as
follows How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning
(creation dawn); how art thou
cut down to the ground
which didst weaken
14:12). Yahusha HaMashiach called him a murderer from the beginning (John
There is deep mystery associated with
the revolt of Lucifer and his reasoning, origination of evil, error, iniquity
and deception, for he gained nothing. Apparently his insubordination began about
the same time as the creation of prehistoric man, and became increasingly worse,
until judgment brought all activities to a halt in the Catastrophe. The Bible
calls him the spirit of error (1st John 4:5,6), the deceiver (Rev.
12:9), the spirit of evil (Eph. 2:1,2), the
god of this world
(2nd Cor. 4:4), the adversary
(1st Pet. 5:8), of all יְהוָה ’s works, the enemy of all righteousness (Acts
13:10), and the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience
(Eph. 2:2). The Apostle Paul constantly emphasized the struggle between the
forces of good and evil to encourage his hearers to recognize and not minimize
the enemy’s attacks. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against
principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this
world, against spiritual wickedness in high places (Eph. 6:12). And, since
even modern man, unless divinely assisted by the Spirit of יְהוָה , is no match for
Satan as witness the frictions, poverty, ignorance, and diseases in the world
today, it is not strange that prehistoric man failed to meet expectations.
Perhaps this may explain why the Creator altered the instinct patterns of some
species and also created new domestic animals for service to man, after the
Catastrophe. For there is sufficient evidence to merit consideration that the
homo (man) group was created to serve homo-sapiens who was to serve
domesticated animals serve their masters today.
We must be careful to distinguish between prehistoric man and modern man.
Biologists classify man as derived from the family Hominidae (erect two-legged
creatures), of the genus homo, of species homosapiens, and modern man of species
homosapiens-sapiens. The Bible does not treat man as a subdivision of any
phylum, but as a separate phylum in himself embodying advanced characteristics
possessed by no other phylum. He is thus a very broadly generalized creature
with innumerable physical, mental, and spiritual potentialities unknown among
other creatures. It also makes clear that the Creator hath made of one blood
all nations of men . . . on the face of the earth . . . determined
the times and the bounds of their habitation. That they should seek the Lord
(Acts 17:26). This was done so that all modern men might claim the blood
atonement of the Son of Man as propitiation for their sins. While it implies the
existence of a prehistoric man population, or perhaps several different bloods
(or species), it mentions nothing of sin forgiveness for any of them. They were
most likely a different phylum than that of modern man. This is shown further by
the Creator’s first instructions to Adam to be fruitful, and multiply, and
replenish the earth and subdue it (Gen. 1:28); that is, to replace the
prehistoric population which had perished, and that he possessed capabilities
even to the point of subduing the former Lucifer which prehistoric men did not.
It seems fairly obvious the prehistoric man phylum was supplied with some reason
and intelligence, brained and medium-brained, barbaric and semi-civilized, but
none approached modern primitives in intellectual potentials. Man, from his
beginning, was a tool maker
because man was and is a thinking,
reasoning animal. No other animal compares with man as to ratio of brain size to
body size, although some large animals have larger brains than man. But modern
man also possessed “living soul” giving him inventiveness, creative ability and
יְהוָה -consciousness, lacking in prehistoric man, which explains why modern man
conceived more cultural advantages in 100 years than all prehistoric man in
careful examination of fossils shows that prehistoric men, like all other phyla,
were without prototype, of sudden origin, and were not reproduced by another
species. There are no missing links. Variegation in species was usually a drawn
out process involving many reproductions (not mutations). The horse, for
example, appeared suddenly but variety in horses developed over many centuries
as a function of the Logos in adjusting the horse to different conditions and
the conditions to the horse. Modification in species has progressed in both
directions, to colors lighter or darker, to limbs and muscles both longer and
shorter than the original, and to organs larger or smaller,
but the sexual reproducing factor remained constant as a residual factor while
the instinct pattern was maintained as an external function of life energy. Thus
there were probably also several variations of some species of prehistoric man,
as to size, habits, and culture, just as there are among modern man today. But
there were possibly several species, which would explain the great difference
between their fossils.
men, perhaps created as vegetarians,
carnivorous habits including cannibalism. They were family group creatures, made
crude weapons and tools, may have had a grunt or sign language, some used fire,
some expressed ideas in crude paintings, and the most advanced may have had some
conception of an after life or a peculiar personal property code, for their
possessions were buried with them. However, no idol or god-worship evidence has
ever been found among their remains to our knowledge. Diet, clothing and shelter
varied considerably with climate, local vegetation, other animals, and
topography, and there is no reason not to believe that they enjoyed the same
fore provisions for existence as all other species. Life is not a self-creating
or self-perpetuating cosmical phenomena but wholly Creator dependant. Nor is it
inconsistent with Creator omniscience to discover that like other types several
man species were created but only those who performed their service here
satisfactorily, or were still necessary, were continued. The undesirable, the
unnecessary, and the wasters became extinct. The Bible explains that all were
created to “please” Him. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor
and power; for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and
were created (Rev. 4:11; John 8:29; 1st Thess. 4:1; Heb. 11:6). This
explains much. For while lower orders of life were equipped with instinct
patterns and cooperative responses; even the prehistoric man phylum was supplied
with some reason and intelligence allowing much more latitude in behavior but
greater responsibility, to their maker. This may appear very abstract but we
drift into serious error when we credit natural causes with the sudden origin or
extinction of species. All things were made by Him (John 1:3) is the only
factual explanation. Food production and conservation of natural resources may
help to explain the long geological ecological eras, the creation of certain
plants synchronized with that of certain animals, and the extinction of some
species, and there are also other species functions involved in Creator
management which demand cooperation with Creator Plan. Prehistoric man’s
contribution was negative. Why?
The findings of
complete skeletal remains and household effects of prehistoric men are so scanty
that it is very difficult to formulate a picture of their customs, habits, and
culture. There are numerous and easily identifiable bones and complete fossils
of much older animals but except for Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon types, whole man
skeletons are rare. Some finds include only parts of skulls, jawbones, or
fragments, and the missing parts, muscles, and fleshy portions have had to be
reconstructed by guesswork. There is no reason to associate them with modern man
who possessed a language, written forms, cooked foods, agriculture, and
domesticated animals right from the beginning. Prehistoric man passed on little
information to the young, but probably used sounds or actions to express desire,
satisfaction, or dismay. The cave floors of Europe have disclosed remains of
more advanced under primitive types indicating possibly that there were
congruent species with as many varieties as we know today within a population
Although present dating methods have
helped, no doubt there has been some confusing of prehistoric man remains with
those of modern man primitives and vice versa. This too is understandable. What
would happen if Catastrophe struck again and the Creator were forced to begin
anew. The population would eventually increase, explorers would emerge, and
perhaps the ruins of an African hut compared with those of a New York penthouse
apartment. Some would insist that this represented millions of years of
evolution, although of contemporary existence. We appreciate the sincere efforts
of paleontologists and anthropologists to construct a panorama of prehistoric
men cultures, but the lack of factual information and wide divergence of opinion
emphasize the difficulties involved. We do not believe with some that
prehistoric man was created during the ice ages and left to fend for himself in
caves. We rather deduce from many considerations that he was created much
earlier during tropical times in three to six different species over an extended
period, which roamed the Eastern Hemisphere, and perhaps one of these reached
the Western Hemisphere or may have been created there. undoubtedly the majority
of prehistoric men lived on nuts, fruits, and wild game, in natural shelters or
constructed huts as do present aborigines, and went naked or were clothed in
animal skins as climate and conditions demanded. He formed closely knit family
groups which scattered over the lands as hunting and food pressures increased.
He probably was
created a very amiable creature but under the influence of Lucifer became a
dangerous and deranged destroyer. The swirling waters of the Catastrophe washed
away or left submerged in some deep ocean the evidence of his culture, with the
exception of a few remains in valleys, caves, or protected areas.
Since evidence of clothing, vegetable fibers, textiles, and wood
artifacts have long ago reverted to dust, scientists have loosely classified
prehistoric men according to the durable tools weapons, and objects found among
their campsites. They may be tentatively listed as follows:
Implements and Weapons / Probable Origin
Man-like apes (not homo) / Round or broken stones, chips / 3 to 1 million years
Abbevilian (homo) / Crude rounded tools, hand axe, flaked fragments.
Australopithecus./ 650M to 500,000 years ago.
Flaked fragments, indeterminate in
shape. Java and Peking man./ 500M to 350,000 “ “
Acheulian / Greater
variety of fragmented tools, crude scrapers./ 350M to 170,000 “ “
stone tools, stone tipped spears.Neanderthal man./ 170M to 50,000 “ “
Chipped flints, sharp weapon points, tools and drills./ 50M to 25,000 “ “
Solutrean / Tools
sharp on both sides, some bone implements. Cro Magnon man./ 25M to 15,000 “
Magdalanean / Polished
stone weapons and tools, chisels, club heads, harpoons and Flaked prismatic
tools. Crude paintings./ 15M to 10,000 B.C.
Azilian (part of former, perhaps)/ Tools similar to above, colored paintings,
etchings, drawings. Some wood tools likely. /10M to 8,000 B.C.
/ All life perished. No artifacts. Earth chaotic period. Animal bones and Debris
piled in heaps in
surface depressions. Evidence of earth axial shift, elongated orbit, terrific
surface disturbances. 8M to 6,000 B.C.
The Re-Creation /
Plant life restored from seeds in the ground, Gen 1:11, 12; and animal life
re-created, Gen 1:21. / 6,000 to 4,500 B.C.
Adamic Man Created /
The “living soul” species of man created. Language, cuneiform writing, metal
working, cooked foods, pottery, metal tools and carts, jewelry, cosmetics,
trade, commerce, clothing, irrigated agriculture, animal husbandry./ 4,500 to
The Catastrophe itself helps to explain the sharp contrast between the
paleolithic and neolithic cultures, the food revolution, and the impressive
sudden changes in artifacts and living habits. The amazing appearance of
writing, self-governed city states, walled villages, temples and adobe houses,
all confirm the Bible position that the “living soul” species were the first
civilized modern men on the earth.
knowledge of prehistoric men is still incomplete and quite speculative, and
since this work favors factual information, we shall list some of the findings
of prehistoric man remains without plan as to order, importance, or precedence,
and let the reader draw his own conclusions concerning their place in the
overall prehistoric ecological economy.
Sinanthropus—found near Peking, China, in 1929, consisting of parts of
perhaps 15 skeletons; skulls, thigh bones, arm bones, one collar bone, a wrist
bone, and some other fragments. They mysteriously disappeared during World War
II but were recovered afterward. The bones appeared more simian than human. A
few chipped and flaked tools and evidence of charcoal were reported. Bones of
bear, buffalo, wolf, deer, elephant, and large cats were found nearby. Cranial
cavities averaged around 950 cc,13a very small if man.
Gigantopithecus—Giant teeth about three times larger than average human
were found in a Chinese drug store in 1939; but were like human teeth. Ancient
Chinese believe that their substance had medicinal value. Were probably teeth of
a giant ape from the Pliocene.
Pithecanthropus—was discovered by a Dutch explorer in 1891-93 near Java,
then Dutch East Indies, and includes a skull top, jaw bone, diseased thigh bone,
and other fragments from a creature about 5’7” tall. They were different than
either human or anthropoid but skull, teeth, and eye ridges favored the latter
while the thigh bone appeared human. This half erect form bent the knees in
walking, and probably looked like an ape, with no chin. Brain cavity near 900
cc. A distinct genus, no relation to Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon. No tools or
fire. Death was caused by a volcanic eruption. Considered by some a fossil
gibbon of the Pliocene when Java was a part of the Asiatic mainland.
Heidelberg man—man found near Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907, consisting of
a piece of jawbone, lower part, indicating a receding gorilla-like chin. Animal
bones nearby point to a very early period, if he was man. Stone artifacts nearby
may or may not be related to his culture. Jaw size and shape point to a distinct
genus, hardly human.
Rhodesian man—from South Africa, consists of a partial skull, piece of
upper jawbone, and some fragments. Details are indefinite, but indicate a small
brain, a gorilla-like face, and a very crude culture. Associated therewith were
some crude tools, with bones of the saber toothed tiger, reindeer, bison, and
elephant probably eaten for food. He must have been a formidable antagonist.
Australopithecus—discovered in South Africa by naturalists, and others,
who have investigated hundreds of prehistoric remains. These specimens had small
brains, but their teeth and limbs appeared almost human. Skulls were similar to
that of a modern six year old. They resemble others among the ape family. Animal
bones nearby were probably from the early Pliocene.
Prometigus – was found in northern Transvaal, consisting of a jawbone of
an adult female, with some teeth missing, from a Creature of near human
proportions, and considered by some to be 1 million years old. Brain cavity size
of 650 cc points to the simian family.
Pleisanthropus-found in 1946, consisting of a female adult skull was once
rated as the “missing link” between man and ape, but like so many others was
neither human nor simian but a different genus entirely, unidentified and long
extinct. Brain cavity was small, but skull was something like the Java and
Peking finds. Other bones nearby were not man.
Saldanha man – consisting of a jaw bone of a Creature similar to
Neanderthal man was found near Capetown, but existed long before, Perhaps
250,000 years old,
Paranthropus – discovered by Broom in 1946, looked like both human and
simian in some respects, and of a type long extinct. They lived in caves,
crushed their victim’s skulls with stones, but left no evidence of tools or
It should be remembered that the
essential difference between man and animals is mental, not physical primarily,
and the mental is reflected by tools, implements, campfires, and living
quarters. But prehistoric hunters were also hunted by animals who might drag off
a man to be devoured in a cave or den leaving tools and artifacts behind. These
are difficult to identify as man.
- consists of a
partial skeleton and other fragments found in Italian coal mines near Vaccinelle,
Italy. The creature was about 6¼ feet tall, had the appearance of an early ape,
but has been considered by some as a progenitor of man.
Eolithim – reported as some of the oldest man-like bones yet discovered
were found near Kenya, East Africa, in rock strata 1 million years old or older.
The skulls pieced from fragments looked like Java man, were thick walled and
quite large. Similar bones have been found in England and France, however,
generally recognized as from a creature similar to man, and from the early
Eoanthropus – found near Essex, England, proved to be the partial remains
of a female from about 2000 B.C. mixed with those of a simian. It was thought at
one time that this represented a creature some 500,000 years old but apparently
some of the parts just appeared old.
Neanderthal Man—has been found in Germany, France, Spain and
Belgium. Discovered in the Neanderthal Gorge, Germany, about 1854, he
represents some of the first complete skeletons unearthed of prehistoric man.
The women were about 4’l0” tall, the men 5’3”, were stocky with brute
appearance, heavy eye ridges, thick set bones, large chests, thick necks, and
fairly large broad flat heads. They used chipped stone tools, had fire at least
for warmth, and buried their dead with food and tools indicating a belief in the
after life or else an unusual life-return code. They lived in caves in which
they also stored supplies. A reconstructed model looked like an ape, but he
probably was a distinct genus of prehistoric man which became extinct sometime
before the sharp glacial advance, in the late Pleistocene.
Cro-Magnon Man—found in France in 1868, in rock shelters of the
Dardogne Valley. Fossils include a number of skeletons resembling modern man.
They were clean limbed, swift, strong, and with large brain cavities, probably
related to the Braun and Grimaldi races. They are probably the most advanced
types of prehistoric man yet found, although somewhat different than modern man.
They used harpoons, prismatic flaked tools, and fire for heating at least. They
developed some sculpture and paintings and sometimes painted their dead,
possibly to beautify them for the next life which they apparently conceived as
physical (not spiritual). They were broad chested, stood erect, and the males
reached 6’2” in height. They probably communicated somehow, although we are not
aware of language, but they used painted pebbles, probably for numbers. Tools
were skillfully made, paintings and etchings carefully drawn, and drawings of
both animals and skin covered huts have been found among their remains. They
apparently thrived as family groups for thousands of years but perished in the
Catastrophe without leaving one written word or character. There is no sign to
indicate that they were conscious of spiritual values like modern men, the most
primitive of which have their forms and objects of religious worship.
Lake Dwellers—Remains of lake dwellings or primitive shelters on sticks
and stilts have been found in Russia, Singapore, Switzerland, the French
Alpines, and some other areas, among over 200 communities probably built for
fishing or protection from animals, rodents, or enemies. Some of these appear to
have been inhabited during the late Pleistocene by paleolithic men and were
abandoned during the Catastrophe. Afterward they were inhabited by neolithic men
with perhaps a span of two or three thousand years between. Some of these
localities exhibit strong evidence of the change between paleolithic and
neolithic cultures and the pause between. How they escaped destruction in the
Catastrophe can only be explained if they were inundated in fairly calm shallow
waters during the preceding ice ages. The fossils are, however, badly mixed
making it difficult to clearly identify cultures. Tragic it is that stone age
men did not leave inscribed records if they had language and means for conveying
messages. The neolithic had both, as well as domesticated animals, and cereal
grains which they sowed, reaped, stored and cooked in metal utensils.
A most interesting find is reported by Ralph S. Solecki,
the Shanider Cave, in northern Iraq. Now used by Kurdish shepherds, the cave
shows habitation by men for thousands of years. Mr. Solecki’s group dug through
four distinct layers or cultures to reach the original floor. Layer A (the top)
of greasy black soil revealed remains of current to ancient campsites, ashes
from fires, pottery, animal bones, and good tools like those used during the
early days of Sumer, Eroch, Eridu, etc., reflecting the Adamic civilization.
Layer B below this showed a brown stained deposit dating back
perhaps to 10,000 years ago covering evidence of paleolithic habitation with
chipped arrow heads, bone awls, snail shells, and wild animal bones but no
pottery, or evidence of domestic animals or cooked foods.
Layer C below this, showed also a paleolithic culture with flint
scrapers like Aurignacean tools dating possibly from 32,000 to 27,000 B.C.
The bottom layer showed signs of early paleolithic and revealed three
Neanderthal skeletons at different depths, estimated at 45,000, 60,000 and
70,000 years old. They used flaked tools and lived on wild game.
is a very valuable one since it probably reflects the remains of several
cultures, or even species, of prehistoric men, and also the sharp contrast
between prehistoric and Adamic men who employed irrigated agriculture, animal
husbandry, cereal grinding, metal working, and domesticated beasts of burden.
Skeletons found by others near Mt. Carmel were similar to those uncovered in
other parts of Palestine, and probably should be classified as Adamic men,
although there is a possibility that there was a Palestinian race of paleolithic
men with a culture somewhere between the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon types. Dr.
Nelson Glueck (1956), with the Hebrew Union College, discovered near the Wadi
Murra, Negeb Desert, ancient campsites 10,000 years old or older, with
innumerable paleolithic tools and weapons, hand axes, borers, scrapers, etc.,
among artifacts of later periods.
Another valuable discovery is that of James Mallart
in southwest Anatolia, near Burdur, Turkey. The mound showed some 20
occupational levels from the early Sumerian down to those of paleolithic
cultures. Below the neolithic culture with remains of pottery, ceramic, houses
and farming, they found a layer of silts
layers of habitation but no pottery, although they may have lived in huts. Here
again is probably a site used by paleolithic men, uninhabited during the
Catastrophe, and repopulated by Adamic men.
A similar site with both stone age and modern man habitational
levels was found by Tom Harrison in limestone caves near Niah, Borneo. There is
evidence that several generations of prehistoric men used the caves beginning
with the middle paleolithic following the original habitation by ape-men perhaps
as long ago as 200,000 years. The upper layers showed remains and artifacts
including pottery, stone and metal tools, and death ships or wooden sepulchers
from the bronze age. Dr. Eigel Nielsen
a Thai-Danish expedition (1960-61) in Thailand, which found what may become an
interesting area of prehistoric man’s remains in caves and rock shelters which
have produced artifacts, from pebble tools (perhaps 1,250,000 to 1,000,000 years
old), through paleolithic, mesolithic, and neolithic cultures to recent bronze
and iron ages, including Chinese and Indian pottery. Skeletons unearthed were of
fairly late origin, but no doubt earlier bones will be found to match the
primitive tools already uncovered. Since this is in the general area of Peking
and Java man, it presents some interesting possibilities.
In the few decades, French explorers searching caves in the
Sahara have discovered thousands of good prehistoric man paintings perhaps 8,000
to 10,000 years old although some are more recent. The majority are of
paleolithic dating, are remarkably well preserved, and are well colored. The
recent include Egyptian war chariots, boats, and animals. This area was
apparently once a thriving ecological community, and may have been densely
populated by prehistoric men, whose surface remains and residue were washed away
by the Catastrophe.
An interesting find is that of F. Clark Howell
associates in the Isinga highlands of southern Tanganyika, South Africa. They
found evidence of a number of stone age populations dating perhaps as far back
as 150,000 to 175,000 years ago, on four levels, with literally hundreds of
tools, sharp axes, knives, scrapers, picks, choppers, rubble and waste chips,
which could represent at least three cultures, types of tool development, or
prehistoric paintings found in the Dardogne Valley near Perigeaux, France, Abbey
Henry Breuil, noted authority, pronounced them as among the best ever found.
They included a frieze of mammoths, bison, horse and rhinoceros. Probably done
by the Magdalanean or Azilian groups who were the last groups in existence just
before the Catastrophe.
Another interesting find was that of L. S. Leakey
wife in the Olduvai Valley, Tanganyika, comprising a skull and partial remains
of a 16 to 18 year old ape-man. The teeth indicated an age Older than Java,
Peking man or Australopithecus, with estimates running all the way from 600,000
to 2,000,000 years. Mr. Leakey traced a stone age development including a series
of cultures from the early to the middle paleolithic covering perhaps 300,000
years or more. Axes, cleavers, and flakes were plentiful. The skull of the
ape-man, labeled Zinzanthropus, was about twice the size of modern man and has
also been called the nut-cracker. Mr. Leakey, among other campsites, found
another skull, leg bones, ribs, and those of animal fossils of unknown species.
There were also some odd tools, probably the earliest used by man or ape-man,
and indicating a very early group if indeed these were made by man.
The old lake bed above Kalambo Falls, South Africa, has also
yielded middle stone age tools in profusion including picks, axes, cleavers,
scrapers, anvils, and campsites littered with animal bones of elephant,
rhinoceros, large pig, antelope, and baboons.
Evidence of another middle paleolithic culture has also been
unearthed by Glob and Bibby,
Bahrain Island, in the Persian Gulf, between the former Sumer, and the Arabian
Sea. There were many chipped flints, barbed arrowheads, and scrapers left by an
interesting stone age culture.
A professor, Alberto Blanc, with the Italian Institute of Human
Paleontology, in 1955 found some almond shaped stone weapons on a
hillside some 20 miles north of Rome. They appeared to be early paleolithic.
Prehistoric man finds in the Western Hemisphere are less
plentiful, but there are a sufficient number to establish definitely the
existence of one or more species in the late Pleistocene.
George Carter, with John Hopkins University, found some charred
mammoth bones at several prehistoric campsites near Santa Rosa Jsland,
California, which had probably been roasted by prehistoric hunters. Radiocarbon
dating indicated a date about 29,650 years ago.
Remains of mammoths and mastodons together with flint arrowheads have been found
near the Bering Strait, although there is little evidence of prehistoric man in
A female skull found near Midland, Texas, in 1953, has been
dated at 20,000 years old. The creature was considerably advanced over
Neanderthal man who became extinct about 50,000 years ago. It was much older
than Folsom man who reportedly existed about 8,000 to 12,000 years ago. The
Folsom man type was found near Browns Valley, Minnesota, by William Jensen, and
when reconstructed looked perhaps like a modern man Indian. Folsom spear points
picked up at Lubbock, Texas, have been tentatively dated at 9,880 years old; and
similar points from Las Vegas, Nevada, at 10,500 years of age.
Danger Cave, Utah, has been dated at about 9,000 years; sandals from Fort Rock
Cave, Oregon, at near the same age; charcoal from a cave near Modoc, Illinois,
at 10,650 years; and charcoal with camel bones from near Tule Springs, Nevada,
at 23,700 years of age.
A man skull found among mammoth bones at Vero, Florida, was of
late Pleistocene dating; and a skeleton from Tepexpan, Mexico, at 11,000 to
The Minnesota Man found near Pelican Rapids in 1931 proved to be
the skeleton of a teen-age girl who expired some 4,000 years ago. Although once
thought to be at least 20,000 years old, she was not a prehistoric creature.
It is difficult to evaluate the Turin, Iowa, finds discovered in
1955 which include several skeletons that appear to be definitely human. They
could be either post-Adamic or late prehistoric but were found among silts
thought to be deposited about 8,000 B.C.
– Bones of giant baboons, and others of the ape family, have been found along
with primitive weapons which show that they used clubs and rocks frequently to
kill their victims, just as they do today. They can use these with amazing
dexterity. Thus the finding of tools with ape bones probably indicates man-like
apes rather than ape-men. Africa, as might be expected from ecological
consideration, contains more of these than any other continent but few, if any,
Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon prehistoric men.
The finds listed are among the most important yet found. After
reviewing these the reader will understand why we believe that prehistoric men
were of several species. The difference between the most primitive and the most
advanced stone-age men in prehistoric times covering perhaps 1,000,000 years are
probably no greater than that between Australian aborigines and some backward
African tribes today. They had little ambition, infant mortality was high, life
short lived, and no transportation, and yet they were scattered which may mean
they were created near the location of their remains. This would be in line with
the general global ecological pattern. No doubt hundreds lie on ocean bottoms,
or were buried by the swirling waters of the Catastrophe, or by wind blown
soils. Such ideas are not based on myths of lost or inundated continents, but on
missing details associated with the rule of Lucifer and the beings who rebelled
with him. Lucifer and his subordinates, now disembodied spirits, once had
happened to them? Lucifer had no power to “create” or “make” but he was formerly
a spiritual being in a body, set up by the Creator as the supervisor of
prehistoric earth, an agent or medium between יְהוָה and His creatures. Expected
to assist man, he opposed him instead, and as far as we can determine no
prehistoric man ever learned of the Creator’s purpose for man. Such relations
would of necessity be based on thought communication or language, but speech and
thought are reflected in more ways than just vocal sounds, and if we look for
these we find prehistoric man little advanced over the animals which have
limited thinking ability but can certainly communicate within their species.
Thus prehistoric man continues to be an enigma, related neither to the animals
or modern man.
This is quite easily understood when we consider certain
criteria surrounding modern man to use as a comparison. Beginning with brain
size, which approximate the following:
Modern man — brain cavity from 2000 to 1200 cu cm.
Cro-Magnon — brain cavity from 1500 to 1200 cu cm.
Neanderthal — brain cavity from 1200 to 1000 cu cm.
Peking — brain cavity from 1000 to 900 cu
Java — brain cavity from 950 to 750
Apes — brain cavity from 650 to 450 cu
Chimps & Gorillas — brain cavity from 650 to 300 cu cm.
It is hard to believe that any creature with under 1200 cc brain size could be
classified as man, and yet, who knows? Modern man is fearfully and
wonderfully made (Ps. 139:14), which is said of no other species. The Bible
makes very plain that the expectations and investment of the Creator in
living soul man has no counterparts in the cosmical Universe. Let us examine
a few more modern-man capabilities, not shared by any other creatures.
Freedom of movement. The dexterity of the human hand, and ability of the
human body to function in a thousand different positions, is equaled in no
animal. Man can move his fingers and pick up an object behind him, over his
head, or under his feet. The animal must turn the entire body. The governor in
man’s brain enables him to walk erect or stand, sit
on a chair, or lie on his back, side, or stomach in comfort, to rest, work or
Sharp, focusing eyes. Sight is man’s means to learning, working, and
sense of surroundings. Animals depend on instinct, smell, and hearing,
primarily, although there are exceptions like the mountain goats which have near
human vision. The human eye has literally millions of sensory perceptors
connected by some 300,000 separate conductors to the brain. The human eye was
designed as a gate for knowledge to the human brain. At least 85% of man’s
learning comes in through this eye gate.
Skeletal Structure. Animals have their organs packed into the rib cage,
the abdominal walls, and the pelvic cavity. Man is made differently, and organs
supported internally so that they do not slide into the pelvic cavity when
standing erect. This is not a result of evolutionary change because man decided
to walk erect, but because he was designed to do so. With the exception of
Cro-Magnon types, prehistoric men were half-erect creatures without the skeletal
flexibility of modern men.
Modern man brain. The capabilities of the human brain distinguish man
from all other creatures including prehistoric man. If duplicated by a
mechanical device it would require a housing larger than the Empire State
the electric power output of Niagara Falls Power Company to operate it. It has
millions of nerve cells which are called neurons which operate on an electrical
potential of a fraction of a volt. The brain sends out tiny impulses as it
operates, while also receiving them from body parts, and records, computes,
analyzes, and then transmits these into mental or physical action or stores them
in the memory. The organ was especially designed for living soul man. For
of all creatures, only the human brain moved by living soul could compose a
Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, a Michelangelo’s Last Supper, or the makings of a
television set. The human brain is the greatest gift of יְהוָה to the soul of man
which was made to cooperate with יְהוָה .
Power of Speech. Modern man is a humming creature who can express himself
by words, actions, or facial expression, and is socially and progressively
minded because he can speak. This enables him to profit from individual and
collective effort which is the basis of trade, commerce, transportation,
exchange, teaching, building, and the utilization and sharing of natural
resources. The lack of language was probably a great barrier to the development
of prehistoric men.
Use of tools. Animals were fitted with built-in tools by the Creator.
Modern man given higher intelligence and mental ability makes his own. The
horns, paddles, and hoofs of the “cattle” family; the jaws and claws of the cat
group; the tusks of the elephant and boar; the snouts and necks of others, were
all designed to serve the creature in conformity to a species life-energy
pattern. Birds are similarly equipped, the woodpecker with a chisel-drill, the
chicken with a beak, the duck with a spoon, the eagle with a hook, and the
kingfisher with a harpoon. Animals also have offensive and defensive weapons,
But man with a human brain is the most dangerous of all because some of the
greatest tools and blessings conceived by good men, are used by evil men for
destructive purposes. Men are tool makers, animals are not, and this faculty
more than any other has advanced man’s living standards.
Tooth Structure and Food. The early dentition in the human includes
molars plus four well developed cusps and two smaller ones. Orangutan young have
one large cusp and three smaller; the chimps one large and one small; and the
gorilla one large and the beginning of a second. Primary dentition in man,
thirty two teeth in all, are embedded in sockets and replace the first or
deciduous set. The development of such dentition is at variance with any other
creature. Thus it is rather simple to identify the human where jawbones are
available. While animals subsist on a few varieties of foods, the human
digestive system can oxidize and assimilate a greater variety of foods by far
than any other creature. This gives man many advantages over animals. But
prehistoric man was a carnivore, judging from his remains, while modern man was
created a herbivore for long life. There was a good reason for this. Herbivores
actually utilize about 10% of plant substance they consume, whereas carnivores
also utilize only 10% of the meat substance eaten. Thus those who live on meat
actually derive only 10% of 10% or 1% of the plant calories, while plant
consumers derive 10%. It was therefore in the Creator’s interest, and energy
conservation, to encourage His creatures to exist on plants. Food preparation,
and a balanced diet, have contributed much to the advance of modern man, but
prehistoric man knew little if anything of such blessings. Adam knew cooked
foods, cow’s milk and grain cereals baked, from the beginning.
Cooperation with Natural and Spiritual Laws. While man is inferior to the
animals instinctively, he is very well fitted with ability to devise ways and
means, store knowledge and experience, exploit rivers and streams, mountains and
forests, and tame or change natural forces for his own good. He calls upon
others for help and cooperative effort, and solicits Divine assistance in
changing circumstances, which altogether have enabled him to develop a very
highly civilized culture. But there is little evidence of such effort among
prehistoric men except in the hunting instinct they enjoyed, but in this they
were perhaps little different than animals which also hunt in packs. We have yet
to learn of any water conservation, such as an artificial lake or dammed river
among prehistoric remains or living areas, or planting of domestic grain
cereals, and yet the first of modern men in Sumeria developed a water irrigation
system for the watering of their grain crops and grasses for domestic animals
that would be a credit to present day engineers. The last of prehistoric men
vanished about 8000 B.C., and modern man appeared suddenly about 4500 to 4000
B.C. How can the sharp contrast between their cultures be explained except by a
complete change in mental equipment. That is, a completely different species.
The entire catalog of all species created since the dawn of life includes no
more widely separated species in the same genus (if they were the same genus)
than modern and prehistoric man. And the difference when completely analyzed
must be credited to the “living soul” complex installed in modern man by the
Creator, although physical characteristics have contributed to modern man’s
advantages as the foregoing has shown. But the body of modern man while alive
also houses a living soul and human spirit enabling cooperation and drawing upon
the Divine, a form of life as far advanced above animal or prehistoric man life
as the latter is above plant life or perhaps non-living matter. No animal
possesses person complex, but the most primitive modern man possessive of living
soul is a person, with access to higher life. Whether modern man has been
successful in doing so is problematical because of SIN, but the extended
longevity and paradisiacal provisions for Adam in the original economy would
indicate that the Creator intended that modern man should live on the highest
physical and spiritual planes. There is not one shred of evidence that
prehistoric man ever had such opportunity.
The Bible definitely indicates the difference between
prehistoric and modern man cultural potentials. Outside of the references to
Lucifer and the Catastrophe, and developments associated with the original
material creation, information regarding prehistoric life is practically nil.
But the recreation is well outlined showing that modern man was capable of an
understanding which prehistoric man was not. A most unusual commentary on the
work of recreation after the Catastrophe is the remark repeated seven times
it was good (Gen. 1)
and the lack of such an approbation concerning prehistoric life probably
indicates that it was not good, even though it began as a tropical paradise,
morning stars sang together (Job 38:7), an expression of joyful
anticipation. The Creator’s dissatisfaction is confirmed by the Catastrophe,
demotion and ejection of Lucifer’s office from Heaven, and the placing of the
waters barrier between Heaven and earth’s galaxy.
origin and rule over prehistoric men is shrouded in mystery. The Bible does
state Thou art the anointed (appointed) cherub (angel) that
covereth (to set, to border, to protect, to encompass, to manage)
and I have
set thee so. Thou hast been in Eden
thine heart was lifted up because of
thy beauty, thou host corrupted thy wisdom
of thy brightness. I will cast thee to the ground
28:14). Another reference states Thou art cast to the ground that didst
weaken the nations (Is. 14:1.2). The Hebrew word chalash translated
weaken means to overthrow, to ruin, to subvert, and probably includes other
meanings but is so seldom used it is difficult to determine. The word nations
from the Hebrew gowy refers to a mass of animals, even birds and insects,
and not man only. That Lucifer conceived plans in opposition to the Creator is
very clear. He was relieved of his former position, relegated to earth’s
atmosphere, and since he has no earthly abode he now tries to inhabit by his
spirit the bodies of men. The Bible admits that he is going to and fro
(Job. 1:7; 2nd Tim. 2:28) in the earth; that he is
walking up and down in
captivate evil and wicked men for his nefarious purposes. But יְהוָה has a chain
on him and he is permitted to go only so far in demonstrating the awful
consequences of evil conduct. These unexplainable urges and promptings to
murder, to rob, to rape, to destroy and to commit lewdness, often reported by
those who have done such things, are usually the results of Satanic obsessions
which are very real,
should be a warning to every man to live righteously and thoughtfully. Lucifer
is mentioned in the Bible under the names of Satan, Beelzebub, Devil, belial,
dragon, serpent, adversary, the father of lies, prince of the powers of the air,
the ruler of the darkness (ignorance and superstition) of this world, and god of
this world (the unregenerate who are earthly minded), the beast, the anti-Mashiach,
etc., etc, some 170 times. Although probably unconscious of it, prehistoric man
existed during the beginning of the struggle between יְהוָה and Lucifer, between
the Divine and the demoniac, and between Good and Evil. He lived a short
animalistic life encumbered by hunger, disease, misery and death, until יְהוָה
shut off all life energy and buried their bodies in the silts of the
The cosmical battle between Good and Evil, between יְהוָה and the
Devil, has three phases. The first was won by יְהוָה in the demotion of Lucifer
and the Catastrophe; the second began with the re-creation, the creation of Adam
with powers over Satan, was hindered temporarily by the sin of man, but which
יְהוָה over-ruled by faith in the Redeemer’s Atonement, and was won for all
redeemed men on Calvary’s Cross; the third and final round will be won when
Satan and all his followers are cast into the “lake of fire” to be banished
eternally, and the new heavens and the new earth will have been recreated
with all evil forever removed. Good men will then be encouraged to exploit their
inheritance and training in cosmical knowledge and responsibility, without
interference from the adversary, and in accord with the Creator’s original
Thus the greatest contribution which the factors surrounding
prehistoric man can make to present day knowledge is a moral and not a
materialistic one; not the How and the When, but the Why. Modern man advanced
farther materialistically, mentally, and spiritually, in the first one hundred
years than prehistoric man in one-half million, perhaps. The physical
differences cannot explain this marvel. The only answer is the living soul
complex of modern man installed by the Creator, which gave him creative
ability, intellectual capability, and access to Divine knowledge, by cooperation
with the Creator. It thus becomes obvious that the advancement of man,
associated with the Divine purpose for him, is predicated not upon physical or
animal proficiency but upon the higher development of the living soul
aspects of man’s being. This is so true, so essential, so important, and the
understanding of it so necessary, that the highest national living standards on
earth have always been enjoyed by those peoples who cooperated with the Creator
towards this end.
Now thanks be unto יְהוָה , which always causes us to triumph in Mashiach, and
maketh manifest the savior of His knowledge by us in every place
(2nd Cor. 2:14).
As was modern man, Gees. 1:29,30. Meat eating is expensive,
from the standpoint of energy conservation. Ten men can live on the plant
energy required for one consuming meat.
The indications of terrific volcanic activity, raising
of the Hawaiian Islands, the mountain building in the Andes, western United
States, and Alaska, all confirm the violent conditions of the Catastrophe.
Oceanographers associated with Columbia University discovered an area of
volcanic ash in the Pacific extending over 500.000 sq. miles. It was
probably a result of the Catastrophe. Scientists at the South Polar region
estimated the age of the ice there, not long ago, as being about 8,000 years
old. These tie in with other evidence of the Catastrophe.
The Bible also speaks of “angels that sinned,” 2nd Peter 2:4; and “angels
that kept not their first estate,” Jude 6. Undoubtedly followers of Lucifer,
were they heavenly beings or earthly beings, and if the latter, where are