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                         Prehistoric Man, A Complex Enigma

Prehistoric Man, an Enigma. An analysis of many findings.


                The present understanding of earth’s early prehistoric development is still limited although perhaps widely accepted. The Six Geological Eras are like chapters in a large volume with many pages, paragraphs, and phrases missing, but the outline in the rock record exhibits unmistakably a continuity of progress, purpose and plan which staggers the mind. It is obvious that to understand Creation one must understand the Creator’s intent and method. How and where does prehistoric man fit into the overall picture? He was obviously a failure.

                Given a universe of matter, composed of over 100 elements in which even the tiniest atomic components reflect design, predictable behavior and chemical cooperation; and living matter composed of protein molecules, each containing up to 10,000 atoms or more, maintaining definite characteristics according to number and composition; and living forms comprised of cells each made up of many thousand protein molecules so closely aligned that the addition or subtraction or one or two genes changes their performance. Add to this cell organization and differentiation in vertebrates which are miracles of exactness; and balance amongst plant and animal species carefully chosen to fulfill an ecological function in each community. Sum these up and it is unthinkable that prehistoric men were created as carnivores, predators, parasites, or producers when there were so many other creatures with instinct patterns and better equipment for the purpose. It thus appears that prehistoric man had a purpose all his own, not necessarily in the natural economy nor in the spiritual economy, but probably somewhere in between, which he never filled.

                Based on ecological, biological (not evolutionary), environmental and functional considerations prehistoric man should have appeared in the latter Cenozoic along with certain plant and animal species, (perhaps 2,000,000 B.C.), most likely to prepare the way or become a servile animal for a more advanced species in the homo (man) family group. Apparently he appeared much later and never completed his mission, at least we have little evidence that he did. There may be a good reason why the man family did not develop as expected or planned. This might be implied in the indictment and demotion of Lucifer, the original supervisor of earth, which is partially recorded as follows How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning (creation dawn); how art thou cut down to the ground (demoted) which didst weaken [1] the nations (Is. 14:12). Yahusha HaMashiach called him a murderer from the beginning (John 8:44) [2]  There is deep mystery associated with the revolt of Lucifer and his reasoning, origination of evil, error, iniquity and deception, for he gained nothing. Apparently his insubordination began about the same time as the creation of prehistoric man, and became increasingly worse, until judgment brought all activities to a halt in the Catastrophe. The Bible calls him the spirit of error (1st John 4:5,6), the deceiver (Rev. 12:9), the spirit of evil (Eph. 2:1,2), the god of this world [3] (2nd Cor. 4:4), the adversary (1st Pet. 5:8), of all יְהוָה ’s works, the enemy of all righteousness (Acts 13:10), and the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience (Eph. 2:2). The Apostle Paul constantly emphasized the struggle between the forces of good and evil to encourage his hearers to recognize and not minimize the enemy’s attacks. For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places (Eph. 6:12). And, since even modern man, unless divinely assisted by the Spirit of יְהוָה , is no match for Satan as witness the frictions, poverty, ignorance, and diseases in the world today, it is not strange that prehistoric man failed to meet expectations. Perhaps this may explain why the Creator altered the instinct patterns of some species and also created new domestic animals for service to man, after the Catastrophe. For there is sufficient evidence to merit consideration that the homo (man) group was created to serve homo-sapiens who was to serve homo-sapiens-sapiens, [4]  ust as domesticated animals serve their masters today.

                We must be careful to distinguish between prehistoric man and modern man. Biologists classify man as derived from the family Hominidae (erect two-legged creatures), of the genus homo, of species homosapiens, and modern man of species homosapiens-sapiens. The Bible does not treat man as a subdivision of any phylum, but as a separate phylum in himself embodying advanced characteristics possessed by no other phylum. He is thus a very broadly generalized creature with innumerable physical, mental, and spiritual potentialities unknown among other creatures. It also makes clear that the Creator hath made of one blood all nations of men . . . on the face of the earth . . . determined the times and the bounds of their habitation. That they should seek the Lord (Acts 17:26). This was done so that all modern men might claim the blood atonement of the Son of Man as propitiation for their sins. While it implies the existence of a prehistoric man population, or perhaps several different bloods (or species), it mentions nothing of sin forgiveness for any of them. They were most likely a different phylum than that of modern man. This is shown further by the Creator’s first instructions to Adam to be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth and subdue it (Gen. 1:28); that is, to replace the prehistoric population which had perished, and that he possessed capabilities even to the point of subduing the former Lucifer which prehistoric men did not. It seems fairly obvious the prehistoric man phylum was supplied with some reason and intelligence, brained and medium-brained, barbaric and semi-civilized, but none approached modern primitives in intellectual potentials. Man, from his beginning, was a tool maker [5] because man was and is a thinking, reasoning animal. No other animal compares with man as to ratio of brain size to body size, although some large animals have larger brains than man. But modern man also possessed “living soul” giving him inventiveness, creative ability and יְהוָה -consciousness, lacking in prehistoric man, which explains why modern man conceived more cultural advantages in 100 years than all prehistoric man in thousands.

                The most careful examination of fossils shows that prehistoric men, like all other phyla, were without prototype, of sudden origin, and were not reproduced by another species. There are no missing links. Variegation in species was usually a drawn out process involving many reproductions (not mutations). The horse, for example, appeared suddenly but variety in horses developed over many centuries as a function of the Logos in adjusting the horse to different conditions and the conditions to the horse. Modification in species has progressed in both directions, to colors lighter or darker, to limbs and muscles both longer and shorter than the original, and to organs larger or smaller, [6] but the sexual reproducing factor remained constant as a residual factor while the instinct pattern was maintained as an external function of life energy. Thus there were probably also several variations of some species of prehistoric man, as to size, habits, and culture, just as there are among modern man today. But there were possibly several species, which would explain the great difference between their fossils.

                Prehistoric men, perhaps created as vegetarians, [7]  soon developed carnivorous habits including cannibalism. They were family group creatures, made crude weapons and tools, may have had a grunt or sign language, some used fire, some expressed ideas in crude paintings, and the most advanced may have had some conception of an after life or a peculiar personal property code, for their possessions were buried with them. However, no idol or god-worship evidence has ever been found among their remains to our knowledge. Diet, clothing and shelter varied considerably with climate, local vegetation, other animals, and topography, and there is no reason not to believe that they enjoyed the same fore provisions for existence as all other species. Life is not a self-creating or self-perpetuating cosmical phenomena but wholly Creator dependant. Nor is it inconsistent with Creator omniscience to discover that like other types several man species were created but only those who performed their service here satisfactorily, or were still necessary, were continued. The undesirable, the unnecessary, and the wasters became extinct. The Bible explains that all were created to “please” Him. Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power; for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created (Rev. 4:11; John 8:29; 1st Thess. 4:1; Heb. 11:6). This explains much. For while lower orders of life were equipped with instinct patterns and cooperative responses; even the prehistoric man phylum was supplied with some reason and intelligence allowing much more latitude in behavior but greater responsibility, to their maker. This may appear very abstract but we drift into serious error when we credit natural causes with the sudden origin or extinction of species. All things were made by Him (John 1:3) is the only factual explanation. Food production and conservation of natural resources may help to explain the long geological ecological eras, the creation of certain plants synchronized with that of certain animals, and the extinction of some species, and there are also other species functions involved in Creator management which demand cooperation with Creator Plan. Prehistoric man’s contribution was negative. Why?

                The findings of complete skeletal remains and household effects of prehistoric men are so scanty [8] and fragmentary that it is very difficult to formulate a picture of their customs, habits, and culture. There are numerous and easily identifiable bones and complete fossils of much older animals but except for Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon types, whole man skeletons are rare. Some finds include only parts of skulls, jawbones, or fragments, and the missing parts, muscles, and fleshy portions have had to be reconstructed by guesswork. There is no reason to associate them with modern man who possessed a language, written forms, cooked foods, agriculture, and domesticated animals right from the beginning. Prehistoric man passed on little information to the young, but probably used sounds or actions to express desire, satisfaction, or dismay. The cave floors of Europe have disclosed remains of more advanced under primitive types indicating possibly that there were congruent species with as many varieties as we know today within a population much larger. [9]  Although present dating methods have helped, no doubt there has been some confusing of prehistoric man remains with those of modern man primitives and vice versa. This too is understandable. What would happen if Catastrophe struck again and the Creator were forced to begin anew. The population would eventually increase, explorers would emerge, and perhaps the ruins of an African hut compared with those of a New York penthouse apartment. Some would insist that this represented millions of years of evolution, although of contemporary existence. We appreciate the sincere efforts of paleontologists and anthropologists to construct a panorama of prehistoric men cultures, but the lack of factual information and wide divergence of opinion emphasize the difficulties involved. We do not believe with some that prehistoric man was created during the ice ages and left to fend for himself in caves. We rather deduce from many considerations that he was created much earlier during tropical times in three to six different species over an extended period, which roamed the Eastern Hemisphere, and perhaps one of these reached the Western Hemisphere or may have been created there. undoubtedly the majority of prehistoric men lived on nuts, fruits, and wild game, in natural shelters or constructed huts as do present aborigines, and went naked or were clothed in animal skins as climate and conditions demanded. He formed closely knit family groups which scattered over the lands as hunting and food pressures increased.[10] He probably was created a very amiable creature but under the influence of Lucifer became a dangerous and deranged destroyer. The swirling waters of the Catastrophe washed away or left submerged in some deep ocean the evidence of his culture, with the exception of a few remains in valleys, caves, or protected areas.

                Since evidence of clothing, vegetable fibers, textiles, and wood artifacts have long ago reverted to dust, scientists have loosely classified prehistoric men according to the durable tools weapons, and objects found among their campsites. They may be tentatively listed as follows: 

  Designation / Implements and Weapons / Probable Origin

  Man-like apes (not homo) / Round or broken stones, chips / 3 to 1 million years ago.

  Abbevilian (homo) / Crude rounded tools, hand axe, flaked fragments. Australopithecus./ 650M to 500,000 years ago.

  Chellean[11]/ Flaked fragments, indeterminate in shape. Java and Peking man./ 500M to 350,000  “    “

  Acheulian / Greater variety of fragmented tools, crude scrapers./ 350M to 170,000 “   “

  Mousterian/Chipped stone tools, stone tipped spears.Neanderthal man./ 170M to 50,000  “    “

  Aurignacean /  Chipped flints, sharp weapon points, tools and drills./ 50M to 25,000   “    “

  Solutrean / Tools sharp on both sides, some bone implements. Cro Magnon man./ 25M to 15,000  “    “

  Magdalanean / Polished stone weapons and tools, chisels, club heads, harpoons and Flaked prismatic tools. Crude paintings./ 15M to 10,000 B.C.                                                               

  Azilian (part of former, perhaps)/ Tools similar to above, colored paintings, etchings, drawings. Some wood tools likely. /10M to 8,000 B.C.                                                               

  The Catastrophe [12] / All life perished. No artifacts. Earth chaotic period. Animal bones and Debris piled in heaps in surface depressions. Evidence of earth axial shift, elongated orbit, terrific surface disturbances. 8M to 6,000 B.C. 

  The Re-Creation / Plant life restored from seeds in the ground, Gen 1:11, 12; and animal life re-created, Gen 1:21. /    6,000 to 4,500 B.C.                                                                         

  Adamic Man Created  /  The “living soul” species of man created. Language, cuneiform writing, metal working, cooked foods, pottery, metal tools and carts, jewelry, cosmetics, trade, commerce, clothing, irrigated agriculture, animal husbandry./ 4,500 to 4,000 B.C. 

The Catastrophe itself helps to explain the sharp contrast between the paleolithic and neolithic cultures, the food revolution, and the impressive sudden changes in artifacts and living habits. The amazing appearance of writing, self-governed city states, walled villages, temples and adobe houses, all confirm the Bible position that the “living soul” species were the first civilized modern men on the earth.[13]        


                 Since our knowledge of prehistoric men is still incomplete and quite speculative, and since this work favors factual information, we shall list some of the findings of prehistoric man remains without plan as to order, importance, or precedence, and let the reader draw his own conclusions concerning their place in the overall prehistoric ecological economy.
Sinanthropus—found near Peking, China, in 1929, consisting of parts of perhaps 15 skeletons; skulls, thigh bones, arm bones, one collar bone, a wrist bone, and some other fragments. They mysteriously disappeared during World War II but were recovered afterward. The bones appeared more simian than human. A few chipped and flaked tools and evidence of charcoal were reported. Bones of bear, buffalo, wolf, deer, elephant, and large cats were found nearby. Cranial cavities averaged around 950 cc,13a very small if man.
Gigantopithecus—Giant teeth about three times larger than average human were found in a Chinese drug store in 1939; but were like human teeth. Ancient Chinese believe that their substance had medicinal value. Were probably teeth of a giant ape from the Pliocene.
Pithecanthropus—was discovered by a Dutch explorer in 1891-93 near Java, then Dutch East Indies, and includes a skull top, jaw bone, diseased thigh bone, and other fragments from a creature about 5’7” tall. They were different than either human or anthropoid but skull, teeth, and eye ridges favored the latter while the thigh bone appeared human. This half erect form bent the knees in walking, and probably looked like an ape, with no chin. Brain cavity near 900 cc. A distinct genus, no relation to Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon. No tools or fire. Death was caused by a volcanic eruption. Considered by some a fossil gibbon of the Pliocene when Java was a part of the Asiatic mainland.
Heidelberg man—man found near Heidelberg, Germany, in 1907, consisting of a piece of jawbone, lower part, indicating a receding gorilla-like chin. Animal bones nearby point to a very early period, if he was man. Stone artifacts nearby may or may not be related to his culture. Jaw size and shape point to a distinct genus, hardly human.
Rhodesian man—from South Africa, consists of a partial skull, piece of upper jawbone, and some fragments. Details are indefinite, but indicate a small brain, a gorilla-like face, and a very crude culture. Associated therewith were some crude tools, with bones of the saber toothed tiger, reindeer, bison, and elephant probably eaten for food. He must have been a formidable antagonist.
Australopithecus—discovered in South Africa by naturalists, and others, who have investigated hundreds of prehistoric remains. These specimens had small brains, but their teeth and limbs appeared almost human. Skulls were similar to that of a modern six year old. They resemble others among the ape family. Animal bones nearby were probably from the early Pliocene.
Prometigus – was found in northern Transvaal, consisting of a jawbone of an adult female, with some teeth missing, from a Creature of near human proportions, and considered by some to be 1 million years old. Brain cavity size of 650 cc points to the simian family.
Pleisanthropus-found in 1946, consisting of a female adult skull was once rated as the “missing link” between man and ape, but like so many others was neither human nor simian but a different genus entirely, unidentified and long extinct. Brain cavity was small, but skull was something like the Java and Peking finds. Other bones nearby were not man.
Saldanha man – consisting of a jaw bone of a Creature similar to Neanderthal man was found near Capetown, but existed long before, Perhaps 250,000 years old,
Paranthropus – discovered by Broom in 1946, looked like both human and simian in some respects, and of a type long extinct. They lived in caves, crushed their victim’s skulls with stones, but left no evidence of tools or fire.

                 It should be remembered that the essential difference between man and animals is mental, not physical primarily, and the mental is reflected by tools, implements, campfires, and living quarters. But prehistoric hunters were also hunted by animals who might drag off a man to be devoured in a cave or den leaving tools and artifacts behind. These are difficult to identify as man.
Oreopithecus [14] - consists of a partial skeleton and other fragments found in Italian coal mines near Vaccinelle, Italy. The creature was about 6¼ feet tall, had the appearance of an early ape, but has been considered by some as a progenitor of man.
Eolithim – reported as some of the oldest man-like bones yet discovered were found near Kenya, East Africa, in rock strata 1 million years old or older. The skulls pieced from fragments looked like Java man, were thick walled and quite large. Similar bones have been found in England and France, however, generally recognized as from a creature similar to man, and from the early Pleistocene.
Eoanthropus – found near Essex, England, proved to be the partial remains of a female from about 2000 B.C. mixed with those of a simian. It was thought at one time that this represented a creature some 500,000 years old but apparently some of the parts just appeared old.
Neanderthal Man—has been found in Germany, France, Spain and Belgium. Discovered in the Neanderthal Gorge, Germany, about 1854, he represents some of the first complete skeletons unearthed of prehistoric man. The women were about 4’l0” tall, the men 5’3”, were stocky with brute appearance, heavy eye ridges, thick set bones, large chests, thick necks, and fairly large broad flat heads. They used chipped stone tools, had fire at least for warmth, and buried their dead with food and tools indicating a belief in the after life or else an unusual life-return code. They lived in caves in which they also stored supplies. A reconstructed model looked like an ape, but he probably was a distinct genus of prehistoric man which became extinct sometime before the sharp glacial advance, in the late Pleistocene.
Cro-Magnon Man—found in France in 1868, in rock shelters of the Dardogne Valley. Fossils include a number of skeletons resembling modern man. They were clean limbed, swift, strong, and with large brain cavities, probably related to the Braun and Grimaldi races. They are probably the most advanced types of prehistoric man yet found, although somewhat different than modern man. They used harpoons, prismatic flaked tools, and fire for heating at least. They developed some sculpture and paintings and sometimes painted their dead, possibly to beautify them for the next life which they apparently conceived as physical (not spiritual). They were broad chested, stood erect, and the males reached 6’2” in height. They probably communicated somehow, although we are not aware of language, but they used painted pebbles, probably for numbers. Tools were skillfully made, paintings and etchings carefully drawn, and drawings of both animals and skin covered huts have been found among their remains. They apparently thrived as family groups for thousands of years but perished in the Catastrophe without leaving one written word or character. There is no sign to indicate that they were conscious of spiritual values like modern men, the most primitive of which have their forms and objects of religious worship.
Lake Dwellers—Remains of lake dwellings or primitive shelters on sticks and stilts have been found in Russia, Singapore, Switzerland, the French Alpines, and some other areas, among over 200 communities probably built for fishing or protection from animals, rodents, or enemies. Some of these appear to have been inhabited during the late Pleistocene by paleolithic men and were abandoned during the Catastrophe. Afterward they were inhabited by neolithic men with perhaps a span of two or three thousand years between. Some of these localities exhibit strong evidence of the change between paleolithic and neolithic cultures and the pause between. How they escaped destruction in the Catastrophe can only be explained if they were inundated in fairly calm shallow waters during the preceding ice ages. The fossils are, however, badly mixed making it difficult to clearly identify cultures. Tragic it is that stone age men did not leave inscribed records if they had language and means for conveying messages. The neolithic had both, as well as domesticated animals, and cereal grains which they sowed, reaped, stored and cooked in metal utensils.

                 A most interesting find is reported by Ralph S. Solecki, [15]  discovered in the Shanider Cave, in northern Iraq. Now used by Kurdish shepherds, the cave shows habitation by men for thousands of years. Mr. Solecki’s group dug through four distinct layers or cultures to reach the original floor. Layer A (the top) of greasy black soil revealed remains of current to ancient campsites, ashes from fires, pottery, animal bones, and good tools like those used during the early days of Sumer, Eroch, Eridu, etc., reflecting the Adamic civilization.

                Layer B below this showed a brown stained deposit dating back perhaps to 10,000 years ago covering evidence of paleolithic habitation with chipped arrow heads, bone awls, snail shells, and wild animal bones but no pottery, or evidence of domestic animals or cooked foods.

                Layer C below this, showed also a paleolithic culture with flint scrapers like Aurignacean tools dating possibly from 32,000 to 27,000 B.C. The bottom layer showed signs of early paleolithic and revealed three Neanderthal skeletons at different depths, estimated at 45,000, 60,000 and 70,000 years old. They used flaked tools and lived on wild game.

                This discovery is a very valuable one since it probably reflects the remains of several cultures, or even species, of prehistoric men, and also the sharp contrast between prehistoric and Adamic men who employed irrigated agriculture, animal husbandry, cereal grinding, metal working, and domesticated beasts of burden. Skeletons found by others near Mt. Carmel were similar to those uncovered in other parts of Palestine, and probably should be classified as Adamic men, although there is a possibility that there was a Palestinian race of paleolithic men with a culture somewhere between the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon types. Dr. Nelson Glueck (1956), with the Hebrew Union College, discovered near the Wadi Murra, Negeb Desert, ancient campsites 10,000 years old or older, with innumerable paleolithic tools and weapons, hand axes, borers, scrapers, etc., among artifacts of later periods.

                Another valuable discovery is that of James Mallart [16] and associates in southwest Anatolia, near Burdur, Turkey. The mound showed some 20 occupational levels from the early Sumerian down to those of paleolithic cultures. Below the neolithic culture with remains of pottery, ceramic, houses and farming, they found a layer of silts [17]  covering seven layers of habitation but no pottery, although they may have lived in huts. Here again is probably a site used by paleolithic men, uninhabited during the Catastrophe, and repopulated by Adamic men.

                A similar site with both stone age and modern man habitational levels was found by Tom Harrison in limestone caves near Niah, Borneo. There is evidence that several generations of prehistoric men used the caves beginning with the middle paleolithic following the original habitation by ape-men perhaps as long ago as 200,000 years. The upper layers showed remains and artifacts including pottery, stone and metal tools, and death ships or wooden sepulchers from the bronze age. Dr. Eigel Nielsen [18]  headed a Thai-Danish expedition (1960-61) in Thailand, which found what may become an interesting area of prehistoric man’s remains in caves and rock shelters which have produced artifacts, from pebble tools (perhaps 1,250,000 to 1,000,000 years old), through paleolithic, mesolithic, and neolithic cultures to recent bronze and iron ages, including Chinese and Indian pottery. Skeletons unearthed were of fairly late origin, but no doubt earlier bones will be found to match the primitive tools already uncovered. Since this is in the general area of Peking and Java man, it presents some interesting possibilities.

                In the few decades, French explorers searching caves in the Sahara have discovered thousands of good prehistoric man paintings perhaps 8,000 to 10,000 years old although some are more recent. The majority are of paleolithic dating, are remarkably well preserved, and are well colored. The recent include Egyptian war chariots, boats, and animals. This area was apparently once a thriving ecological community, and may have been densely populated by prehistoric men, whose surface remains and residue were washed away by the Catastrophe.

                An interesting find is that of F. Clark Howell [19]  and associates in the Isinga highlands of southern Tanganyika, South Africa. They found evidence of a number of stone age populations dating perhaps as far back as 150,000 to 175,000 years ago, on four levels, with literally hundreds of tools, sharp axes, knives, scrapers, picks, choppers, rubble and waste chips, which could represent at least three cultures, types of tool development, or occupational groups.

After reviewing prehistoric paintings found in the Dardogne Valley near Perigeaux, France, Abbey Henry Breuil, noted authority, pronounced them as among the best ever found. They included a frieze of mammoths, bison, horse and rhinoceros. Probably done by the Magdalanean or Azilian groups who were the last groups in existence just before the Catastrophe.

                Another interesting find was that of L. S. Leakey [20]  and wife in the Olduvai Valley, Tanganyika, comprising a skull and partial remains of a 16 to 18 year old ape-man. The teeth indicated an age Older than Java, Peking man or Australopithecus, with estimates running all the way from 600,000 to 2,000,000 years. Mr. Leakey traced a stone age development including a series of cultures from the early to the middle paleolithic covering perhaps 300,000 years or more. Axes, cleavers, and flakes were plentiful. The skull of the ape-man, labeled Zinzanthropus, was about twice the size of modern man and has also been called the nut-cracker. Mr. Leakey, among other campsites, found another skull, leg bones, ribs, and those of animal fossils of unknown species. There were also some odd tools, probably the earliest used by man or ape-man, and indicating a very early group if indeed these were made by man.

                The old lake bed above Kalambo Falls, South Africa, has also yielded middle stone age tools in profusion including picks, axes, cleavers, scrapers, anvils, and campsites littered with animal bones of elephant, rhinoceros, large pig, antelope, and baboons.

                Evidence of another middle paleolithic culture has also been unearthed by Glob and Bibby, [21]  on Bahrain Island, in the Persian Gulf, between the former Sumer, and the Arabian Sea. There were many chipped flints, barbed arrowheads, and scrapers left by an interesting stone age culture.  

                A professor, Alberto Blanc, with the Italian Institute of Human Paleontology, in 1955 found some almond shaped stone weapons on a hillside some 20 miles north of Rome. They appeared to be early paleolithic.

                Prehistoric man finds in the Western Hemisphere are less plentiful, but there are a sufficient number to establish definitely the existence of one or more species in the late Pleistocene.

                George Carter, with John Hopkins University, found some charred mammoth bones at several prehistoric campsites near Santa Rosa Jsland, California, which had probably been roasted by prehistoric hunters. Radiocarbon dating indicated a date about 29,650 years ago.
Remains of mammoths and mastodons together with flint arrowheads have been found near the Bering Strait, although there is little evidence of prehistoric man in Alaska.

                A female skull found near Midland, Texas, in 1953, has been dated at 20,000 years old. The creature was considerably advanced over Neanderthal man who became extinct about 50,000 years ago. It was much older than Folsom man who reportedly existed about 8,000 to 12,000 years ago. The Folsom man type was found near Browns Valley, Minnesota, by William Jensen, and when reconstructed looked perhaps like a modern man Indian. Folsom spear points picked up at Lubbock, Texas, have been tentatively dated at 9,880 years old; and similar points from Las Vegas, Nevada, at 10,500 years of age.

                Basketry from Danger Cave, Utah, has been dated at about 9,000 years; sandals from Fort Rock Cave, Oregon, at near the same age; charcoal from a cave near Modoc, Illinois, at 10,650 years; and charcoal with camel bones from near Tule Springs, Nevada, at 23,700 years of age.

                A man skull found among mammoth bones at Vero, Florida, was of late Pleistocene dating; and a skeleton from Tepexpan, Mexico, at 11,000 to 12,000 years.

                The Minnesota Man found near Pelican Rapids in 1931 proved to be the skeleton of a teen-age girl who expired some 4,000 years ago. Although once thought to be at least 20,000 years old, she was not a prehistoric creature.

                It is difficult to evaluate the Turin, Iowa, finds discovered in 1955 which include several skeletons that appear to be definitely human. They could be either post-Adamic or late prehistoric but were found among silts thought to be deposited about 8,000 B.C.

Man-like Apes – Bones of giant baboons, and others of the ape family, have been found along with primitive weapons which show that they used clubs and rocks frequently to kill their victims, just as they do today. They can use these with amazing dexterity. Thus the finding of tools with ape bones probably indicates man-like apes rather than ape-men. Africa, as might be expected from ecological consideration, contains more of these than any other continent but few, if any, Neanderthal or Cro-Magnon prehistoric men.

                The finds listed are among the most important yet found. After reviewing these the reader will understand why we believe that prehistoric men were of several species. The difference between the most primitive and the most advanced stone-age men in prehistoric times covering perhaps 1,000,000 years are probably no greater than that between Australian aborigines and some backward African tribes today. They had little ambition, infant mortality was high, life short lived, and no transportation, and yet they were scattered which may mean they were created near the location of their remains. This would be in line with the general global ecological pattern. No doubt hundreds lie on ocean bottoms, or were buried by the swirling waters of the Catastrophe, or by wind blown soils. Such ideas are not based on myths of lost or inundated continents, but on missing details associated with the rule of Lucifer and the beings who rebelled with him. Lucifer and his subordinates, now disembodied spirits, once had bodies. [22]  What happened to them? Lucifer had no power to “create” or “make” but he was formerly a spiritual being in a body, set up by the Creator as the supervisor of prehistoric earth, an agent or medium between יְהוָה and His creatures. Expected to assist man, he opposed him instead, and as far as we can determine no prehistoric man ever learned of the Creator’s purpose for man. Such relations would of necessity be based on thought communication or language, but speech and thought are reflected in more ways than just vocal sounds, and if we look for these we find prehistoric man little advanced over the animals which have limited thinking ability but can certainly communicate within their species. Thus prehistoric man continues to be an enigma, related neither to the animals or modern man.

                This is quite easily understood when we consider certain criteria surrounding modern man to use as a comparison. Beginning with brain size, which approximate the following:

Modern man            —            brain cavity from     2000 to 1200 cu cm.
Cro-Magnon            —            brain cavity from     1500 to 1200 cu cm.
Neanderthal             —            brain cavity from     1200 to 1000 cu cm.

Peking                     —            brain cavity from     1000 to   900 cu cm.

Java                         —            brain cavity from       950 to   750 cu cm.

Apes                        —            brain cavity from       650 to   450 cu cm.

Chimps & Gorillas    —            brain cavity from       650 to   300 cu cm. 

It is hard to believe that any creature with under 1200 cc brain size could be classified as man, and yet, who knows? Modern man is fearfully and wonderfully made (Ps. 139:14), which is said of no other species. The Bible makes very plain that the expectations and investment of the Creator in living soul man has no counterparts in the cosmical Universe. Let us examine a few more modern-man capabilities, not shared by any other creatures.
Freedom of movement. The dexterity of the human hand, and ability of the human body to function in a thousand different positions, is equaled in no animal. Man can move his fingers and pick up an object behind him, over his head, or under his feet. The animal must turn the entire body. The governor in man’s brain enables him to walk erect or stand, sit
on a chair, or lie on his back, side, or stomach in comfort, to rest, work or play.
Sharp, focusing eyes. Sight is man’s means to learning, working, and sense of surroundings. Animals depend on instinct, smell, and hearing, primarily, although there are exceptions like the mountain goats which have near human vision. The human eye has literally millions of sensory perceptors connected by some 300,000 separate conductors to the brain. The human eye was designed as a gate for knowledge to the human brain. At least 85% of man’s learning comes in through this eye gate.
Skeletal Structure. Animals have their organs packed into the rib cage, the abdominal walls, and the pelvic cavity. Man is made differently, and organs supported internally so that they do not slide into the pelvic cavity when standing erect. This is not a result of evolutionary change because man decided to walk erect, but because he was designed to do so. With the exception of Cro-Magnon types, prehistoric men were half-erect creatures without the skeletal flexibility of modern men.
Modern man brain. The capabilities of the human brain distinguish man from all other creatures including prehistoric man. If duplicated by a mechanical device it would require a housing larger than the Empire State Building,
[23]  and the electric power output of Niagara Falls Power Company to operate it. It has millions of nerve cells which are called neurons which operate on an electrical potential of a fraction of a volt. The brain sends out tiny impulses as it operates, while also receiving them from body parts, and records, computes, analyzes, and then transmits these into mental or physical action or stores them in the memory. The organ was especially designed for living soul man. For of all creatures, only the human brain moved by living soul could compose a Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, a Michelangelo’s Last Supper, or the makings of a television set. The human brain is the greatest gift of יְהוָה to the soul of man which was made to cooperate with יְהוָה .
Power of Speech. Modern man is a humming creature who can express himself by words, actions, or facial expression, and is socially and progressively minded because he can speak. This enables him to profit from individual and collective effort which is the basis of trade, commerce, transportation, exchange, teaching, building, and the utilization and sharing of natural resources. The lack of language was probably a great barrier to the development of prehistoric men.
Use of tools. Animals were fitted with built-in tools by the Creator. Modern man given higher intelligence and mental ability makes his own. The horns, paddles, and hoofs of the “cattle” family; the jaws and claws of the cat group; the tusks of the elephant and boar; the snouts and necks of others, were all designed to serve the creature in conformity to a species life-energy pattern. Birds are similarly equipped, the woodpecker with a chisel-drill, the chicken with a beak, the duck with a spoon, the eagle with a hook, and the kingfisher with a harpoon. Animals also have offensive and defensive weapons, But man with a human brain is the most dangerous of all because some of the greatest tools and blessings conceived by good men, are used by evil men for destructive purposes. Men are tool makers, animals are not, and this faculty more than any other has advanced man’s living standards.
Tooth Structure and Food. The early dentition in the human includes molars plus four well developed cusps and two smaller ones. Orangutan young have one large cusp and three smaller; the chimps one large and one small; and the gorilla one large and the beginning of a second. Primary dentition in man, thirty two teeth in all, are embedded in sockets and replace the first or deciduous set. The development of such dentition is at variance with any other creature. Thus it is rather simple to identify the human where jawbones are available. While animals subsist on a few varieties of foods, the human digestive system can oxidize and assimilate a greater variety of foods by far than any other creature. This gives man many advantages over animals. But prehistoric man was a carnivore, judging from his remains, while modern man was created a herbivore for long life. There was a good reason for this. Herbivores actually utilize about 10% of plant substance they consume, whereas carnivores also utilize only 10% of the meat substance eaten. Thus those who live on meat actually derive only 10% of 10% or 1% of the plant calories, while plant consumers derive 10%. It was therefore in the Creator’s interest, and energy conservation, to encourage His creatures to exist on plants. Food preparation, and a balanced diet, have contributed much to the advance of modern man, but prehistoric man knew little if anything of such blessings. Adam knew cooked foods, cow’s milk and grain cereals baked, from the beginning.
Cooperation with Natural and Spiritual Laws. While man is inferior to the animals instinctively, he is very well fitted with ability to devise ways and means, store knowledge and experience, exploit rivers and streams, mountains and forests, and tame or change natural forces for his own good. He calls upon others for help and cooperative effort, and solicits Divine assistance in changing circumstances, which altogether have enabled him to develop a very highly civilized culture. But there is little evidence of such effort among prehistoric men except in the hunting instinct they enjoyed, but in this they were perhaps little different than animals which also hunt in packs. We have yet to learn of any water conservation, such as an artificial lake or dammed river among prehistoric remains or living areas, or planting of domestic grain cereals, and yet the first of modern men in Sumeria developed a water irrigation system for the watering of their grain crops and grasses for domestic animals that would be a credit to present day engineers. The last of prehistoric men vanished about 8000 B.C., and modern man appeared suddenly about 4500 to 4000 B.C. How can the sharp contrast between their cultures be explained except by a complete change in mental equipment. That is, a completely different species. The entire catalog of all species created since the dawn of life includes no more widely separated species in the same genus (if they were the same genus) than modern and prehistoric man. And the difference when completely analyzed must be credited to the “living soul” complex installed in modern man by the Creator, although physical characteristics have contributed to modern man’s advantages as the foregoing has shown. But the body of modern man while alive also houses a living soul and human spirit enabling cooperation and drawing upon the Divine, a form of life as far advanced above animal or prehistoric man life as the latter is above plant life or perhaps non-living matter. No animal possesses person complex, but the most primitive modern man possessive of living soul is a person, with access to higher life. Whether modern man has been successful in doing so is problematical because of SIN, but the extended longevity and paradisiacal provisions for Adam in the original economy would indicate that the Creator intended that modern man should live on the highest physical and spiritual planes. There is not one shred of evidence that prehistoric man ever had such opportunity.

                The Bible definitely indicates the difference between prehistoric and modern man cultural potentials. Outside of the references to Lucifer and the Catastrophe, and developments associated with the original material creation, information regarding prehistoric life is practically nil. But the recreation is well outlined showing that modern man was capable of an understanding which prehistoric man was not. A most unusual commentary on the work of recreation after the Catastrophe is the remark repeated seven times it was good (Gen. 1) [24]  This emphasis and the lack of such an approbation concerning prehistoric life probably indicates that it was not good, even though it began as a tropical paradise, [25]  for the morning stars sang together (Job 38:7), an expression of joyful anticipation. The Creator’s dissatisfaction is confirmed by the Catastrophe, demotion and ejection of Lucifer’s office from Heaven, and the placing of the waters barrier between Heaven and earth’s galaxy. [26]

                Lucifer’s origin and rule over prehistoric men is shrouded in mystery. The Bible does state Thou art the anointed (appointed) cherub (angel) that covereth (to set, to border, to protect, to encompass, to manage) and I have set thee so. Thou hast been in Eden [27] (prehistoric earth), thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou host corrupted thy wisdom [28]  because of thy brightness. I will cast thee to the ground [29]  (Eze. 28:14). Another reference states Thou art cast to the ground that didst weaken the nations (Is. 14:1.2). The Hebrew word chalash translated weaken means to overthrow, to ruin, to subvert, and probably includes other meanings but is so seldom used it is difficult to determine. The word nations from the Hebrew gowy refers to a mass of animals, even birds and insects, and not man only. That Lucifer conceived plans in opposition to the Creator is very clear. He was relieved of his former position, relegated to earth’s atmosphere, and since he has no earthly abode he now tries to inhabit by his spirit the bodies of men. The Bible admits that he is going to and fro (Job. 1:7; 2nd Tim. 2:28) in the earth; that he is walking up and down in it, [30]  trying to captivate evil and wicked men for his nefarious purposes. But יְהוָה has a chain on him and he is permitted to go only so far in demonstrating the awful consequences of evil conduct. These unexplainable urges and promptings to murder, to rob, to rape, to destroy and to commit lewdness, often reported by those who have done such things, are usually the results of Satanic obsessions which are very real, [31]  and should be a warning to every man to live righteously and thoughtfully. Lucifer is mentioned in the Bible under the names of Satan, Beelzebub, Devil, belial, dragon, serpent, adversary, the father of lies, prince of the powers of the air, the ruler of the darkness (ignorance and superstition) of this world, and god of this world (the unregenerate who are earthly minded), the beast, the anti-Mashiach, etc., etc, some 170 times. Although probably unconscious of it, prehistoric man existed during the beginning of the struggle between יְהוָה and Lucifer, between the Divine and the demoniac, and between Good and Evil. He lived a short animalistic life encumbered by hunger, disease, misery and death, until יְהוָה shut off all life energy and buried their bodies in the silts of the Catastrophe.

                The cosmical battle between Good and Evil, between יְהוָה and the Devil, has three phases. The first was won by יְהוָה in the demotion of Lucifer and the Catastrophe; the second began with the re-creation, the creation of Adam with powers over Satan, was hindered temporarily by the sin of man, but which יְהוָה over-ruled by faith in the Redeemer’s Atonement, and was won for all redeemed men on Calvary’s Cross; the third and final round will be won when Satan and all his followers are cast into the “lake of fire” to be banished eternally, and the new heavens and the new earth will have been recreated with all evil forever removed. Good men will then be encouraged to exploit their inheritance and training in cosmical knowledge and responsibility, without interference from the adversary, and in accord with the Creator’s original intent.

                Thus the greatest contribution which the factors surrounding prehistoric man can make to present day knowledge is a moral and not a materialistic one; not the How and the When, but the Why. Modern man advanced farther materialistically, mentally, and spiritually, in the first one hundred years than prehistoric man in one-half million, perhaps. The physical differences cannot explain this marvel. The only answer is the living soul complex of modern man installed by the Creator, which gave him creative ability, intellectual capability, and access to Divine knowledge, by cooperation with the Creator. It thus becomes obvious that the advancement of man, associated with the Divine purpose for him, is predicated not upon physical or animal proficiency but upon the higher development of the living soul aspects of man’s being. This is so true, so essential, so important, and the understanding of it so necessary, that the highest national living standards on earth have always been enjoyed by those peoples who cooperated with the Creator towards this end. Now thanks be unto יְהוָה , which always causes us to triumph in Mashiach, and maketh manifest the savior of His knowledge by us in every place (2nd Cor. 2:14).


[1] Weaken, or hinder their development.

[2] We surmise from other Bible references that Lucifer was not in favor of man’s development for responsibility equal to or an advance over his own position.

[3] The word “world’’ applies to all whose sole interests are tied up in worldly things. It does not mean earth; “The earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof,” Ps. 24:1,

[4] Although Cro-Magnon man exhibits some of the characteristics of modern primitives, it is very doubtful whether conditions reached the point of readiness for living-soul, or dual nature, man.

[5] Animals sometimes use sticks and stones for weapons or other purposes but they never manufacture them. Animals are equipped with built-in tools.

[6] For both external and internal reasons. Man is white, red, yellow or black, not because he wills it but because of external reasons and internal adjustment. Prehistoric men may also have been of many colors although the climate was generally tropical.


[7] As was modern man, Gees. 1:29,30. Meat eating is expensive, from the standpoint of energy conservation. Ten men can live on the plant energy required for one consuming meat.

[8] This is readily understandable after reading the next chapter which deals with destruction of earth’s surface attending the catastrophe.

[9] It is doubtful whether the prehistoric man population ever exceeded a few millions.

[10] Just as nomads do today.

[11] Some tools attributed to the Chellean group may stem from an earlier species. The figures given at the right are rough estimates, but are based on good evidence.


[12] The indications of terrific volcanic activity, raising of the Hawaiian Islands, the mountain building in the Andes, western United States, and Alaska, all confirm the violent conditions of the Catastrophe. Oceanographers associated with Columbia University discovered an area of volcanic ash in the Pacific extending over 500.000 sq. miles. It was probably a result of the Catastrophe. Scientists at the South Polar region estimated the age of the ice there, not long ago, as being about 8,000 years old. These tie in with other evidence of the Catastrophe.

[13] The Instructions to Adam to “replenish” or repopulate the earth does not mean that prehistoric men were of his same species.
Cubic centimeters.

[14] See, And Now ... Coalman.” by Gordon Young, The Saturday Evening Post, Feb. 13, 1960.

[15] See Scientific American Magazine, Nov. 1957 issue. Also the article by Sherwood Washburn, Tools and Human Evolution, Scientific American, July 1960 issue.

[16] British Archeological Institute.

[17] The residue of the Catastrophe.

[18] Copenhagen Mineralogical Museum.

[19] See the article, Ismila, a Paleolithic Site in Africa, Scientific American Magazine, October 1961 issue.

[20] See Scientific American Magazine, July 1958 issue.

[21] See A Forgotten Civilization of the Persian Gulf, by P. V. Glob & T. G. Bibby, Scientific American Magazine, October 1960.

[22] Exe. 28:13-16. The Bible also speaks of “angels that sinned,” 2nd Peter 2:4; and “angels that kept not their first estate,” Jude 6. Undoubtedly followers of Lucifer, were they heavenly beings or earthly beings, and if the latter, where are their bodies?

[23] New York City.

[24] With the exception of the second day’s work where the assertion is omitted. The Creator on this day pushed the galaxies apart and separated earth from heaven by a wall of waters.

[25] That is, it was obviously the Creator’s intent to develop it into a tropical paradise for flora and fauna, as an ideal classroom for man beings to be taught in all the rudiments of cosmical knowledge.

[26] See Gen. 1:6,7. The Hebrew word mayim does not limit the substance to H2O.

[27] The reference in Is. 14:12, “O Lucifer, son of the morning,” indicates that he was created during the dawn of cosmical creation, and endowed with supernatural powers for supervising it.

[28] He turned his supernatural powers into the avenue of creating evil and devices contrary to יְהוָה .

[29] His future activities were to be limited to earth, and he would become an example of the judgment to be meted out to all wrong doers.

[30] Within men if they let him possess them.

[31] Confirmed in any newspaper. Insanity, sex deviation, unpremeditated murder, and intemperate violence are often the result of demon oppression or possession.


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